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Carcinoma

Carcinoma has been defined as the most common type of cancer. It starts in the tissue that lines the internal organs, such as kidneys and liver, or epithelial tissue of the skin. The symptoms of this disease can be seen confined to the primary location, or spreading to other parts of the body. Carcinoma in stage 1 is an early stage of cancer that stays confined to the layer of tissue from which it began and has not yet spread to tissues in the surrounding or other body parts. There are some common types of carcinoma that can appear in many parts of the body. These include:

- Basal cell carcinoma: It is the most common type of all cancers which occurs in the lining of cells that are the deepest part of the outer layer of skin.

- Squamous cell carcinoma: It is the second most common form of skin cancer. Squamous cells are the primary type cells that make the outermost layer of the skin called epidermis. Cancerous cells develop from these cells.

- Renal cell carcinoma: It is considered the most common type of cancer in the kidney. It can form in one or both the kidneys. The cancerous cells develop typically in the tubules, which is the lining of very small tubes in the kidney. These cells may grow into a mass over time and cause a barrier.

- Ductal carcinoma in situ: It is a form of breast cancer in which the cancerous cells have not spread through the milk duct walls into breast tissue surrounding and are confined within the milk duct lining.

- Invasive ductal carcinoma: When the cancerous cells develop in the lining of milk ducts, break through its wall and attack local tissue of the breast. Cancer may metastasize from there to other body parts.

- Adenocarcinoma: It is a type of carcinoma which starts in glandular cells, which makes mucus and other fluids.

Carcinoma Symptoms:

The symptoms of Carcinoma depend on its type, location, and where the cancer cells have spread. Below are mentioned warning signs that would indicate the presence of cancer:

-  A sore throat that doesn’t heal

-  Change in the habits of bowel or bladder

-  Difficulty in swallowing

-  Unusual discharge or bleeding

-  Chronic indigestion

-  Hoarseness or nagging cough

-  Lump or thickening in testicles, breast, or elsewhere

-  Change in shape, size, thickness, or colour of a mole or wart

-  Persistent nausea, fatigue, or vomiting

-  Unexplained loss of appetite and weight

-  Recurring infections that do not clear with usual treatment

-  Pain in parts of the body and bones, which may worsen steadily

These symptoms should prompt a person to seek immediate medical attention. Often there are more than one symptoms present in patients who are more specific with the type of cancer and its location. For instance, metastatic breast cancer may show symptoms of extreme fatigue, seizures, or pain, while breast cancer shows the presence of a lump in the breast or nipple discharge. Another example can be taken of patients with lung cancer, which may be present with symptoms of pain, but the pain is usually located in the chest. The unusual bleeding occurs during coughing. The patients of lung cancer often fall short of breath and then become fatigued.

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Carcinoma Causes:

Carcinoma is cancer that begins in the tissues that cover internal organs, or skin can spread throughout the body. The causes of this disease vary depending on the part of the body that is affected.

-  Ultraviolet light can cause carcinoma, or skin cancer, and wrinkling. The doctor advises avoiding the sunlight and tanning beds. Instead, they recommend using water-resistant, broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF (sun protection factor) of 30 or more endorsing sunless self-tanning products on exposed skin. Patients should check over skin for changes or growth that may show signs of carcinoma.

-  PUVA (psoralen plus ultraviolet A) and X-rays treatments are the forms of Therapeutic radiation that may cause melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. These are skin cancers. Depending on various factors, such as medical status, skin pigmentation and a dose of radiation received, the patients of therapeutic radiation are more vulnerable to develop carcinoma.

-  Immunosuppressant drugs cause skin cancer as a weakened immune system escalates the risk of contracting carcinomas. Most of the patients of organ transplant, who are taking medications to stop organ rejection, develop squamous cell carcinoma. Sometimes, it happens over the course of their lives. The patients with a heart transplant are at more risk due to the requirement of taking a higher dosage of organ rejection medications.

-  Genetics has been considered among a number of specific cancers. These are the skin, prostate, ovarian, breast, melanoma and colorectal.

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How to Carcinoma diagnosed?

To know the causes of carcinoma the health professionals diagnose during routine screening examinations. Usually, these are tests that have to be done routinely at a certain age. Most of the cancers are learnt about when you go to your doctor with specific symptoms.

-  A medical history, especially the history of symptoms, and physical examination are the initial steps in diagnosing carcinoma. Your doctor will recommend a number of tests according to the type of carcinoma and its suspected location in the body. The levels of electrolyte, a complete blood count and other blood studies are ordered to get additional information.

-  The physicians use imaging studies in order to detect abnormalities in the body that may indicate the presence of cancer. Ultrasound, CT and MRI scans and X-rays are commonly used to examine the body. Cancerous tissues in the bronchi, intestinal tract and throat can be visualized with the test called endoscopy. Radionuclide scanning is used to see inside the areas that cannot be well visualized, like lymph nodes or inside bones.

-  A biopsy is a form of diagnosing skin cancer which involves examination of a sample tissue analyzed with a device called an endoscope. It can identify the type of cancer and therefore, help in staging cancer.

Carcinoma Prevention:

Are you concerned about what is the preventive measure for Carcinoma? In many cases, preventive measures for cancer is still evolving. However, the chances of developing cancer can be affected by the choices of lifestyle that you make. Some simple changes in your lifestyle can bring a big difference.

-  Using it can put you on a course of collision with cancer. Various types of cancer have been linked to smoking habit. These include cancer of mouth, lungs, throat, bladder, larynx, cervix, kidney and pancreas. Cancer of pancreas and an oral cavity occurs due to chewing tobacco. Even exposure to second-hand tobacco use, such as smoking, might put you at the risk of lung cancer. So, avoid using any type of tobacco. There are other products available that your doctor may suggest assisting you to quit tobacco.

-  Eating healthy diet in your meal may help reduce your risk of getting cancer. Have plenty of fruits and vegetables every day. Eat lighter and leaner to avoid getting obese by choosing fewer high-calorie food items. This includes fat from animal sources and refined sugars. The risk of cancer of the lungs, liver, kidney, breasts and colon increases with the amount of alcohol consumption and the time length you have been drinking. So, choose to drink the only a moderate amount of alcohol. Limit the intake of processed meat as these could slightly increase the risk of certain types of carcinoma.

-  The risk of various carcinoma types can be reduced by maintaining a healthy weight. Additionally, you should do physical activity regularly to control your weight.

-  There are various stages of preventing skin cancer. Stay away from the midday sun, that is, between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., as the rays of the sun are strongest during this time. Use the substantial amount of sunscreen and stay under the shade as much as possible when you are outdoors. Wear loose-fitting, lightly woven clothes that cover a maximum of your body. Go for dark or bright colours as these reflect more ultraviolet radiation that bleached or pastel cotton type. Tanning beds and sunlamps should be avoided as using these could damage as natural sunlight.

Read More: Diarrhoea Prevention | Dyspepsia Prevention

Carcinoma Treatment:

The treatment for carcinoma varies depending upon the signs of Carcinoma, its type, extent and location of the disease. The patients may be given a unique sequenced treatment, that is, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. But most treatments are the combination of two or all of the three treatments. The treatment would include:

-  Removal of the cancerous cells and the surrounding tissues are done by surgery and this method helps to reduce the time required for healing. It also minimizes the risk of infection after surgery.

-  In combination with chemotherapy of surgery, radiation therapy may be used. While being cautious about surrounding organs and healthy tissues, the advanced radiation therapy uses image guidance before and during the treatment in order to target the tumours.

-  Carcinoma can be treated by chemotherapy with drugs that destroy cancer cells. It can be either in a specific area or throughout the whole body.

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Carcinoma Complications:

Anything that assists a normal body cell to grow abnormally can potentially cause carcinoma. There are several measures of prevention that a person needs to follow in order to lower the risk of getting cancer. While some causes of cancer remain unknown, there are other cancers that get triggered due to environment or lifestyle. It has been observed that cancer and its treatment can cause several complications. These include:

-  Difficulty in breathing

-  Constipation or diarrhoea due to bowel system being affected

-  Severe pain caused during chemotherapy

-  Feeling nausea and fatigue

-  Loss in weight

-  A chemical imbalance in the body, like confusion, excessive thirst and frequent urination

-  Advancing cancer may spread to other body parts

-  Problems in the brain and nervous system

-  Higher chances of recurrence of the disease once the patient has survived from cancer

-  Unusual reactions of the immune systems, such as seizures and difficulty in walking.

Myths related to Carcinoma:

You would find a lot of information about carcinoma on the internet, or hear from people around you, which could prove to be wrong and misleading. Mentioned below are the true facts behind some cancer myths.

Myth #1: You are prone to get carcinoma if you a family history.

The fact is, although a family history of cancer may put you at the risk of acquiring the disease, it is not yet a full proof prediction. Among 4 out of every 10 cancer patients can be prevented from developing cancer by making simple changes in lifestyle, like maintaining a healthy weight, regular exercising, healthy eating habits, avoiding tobacco and heavy alcohol consumption.

Myth #2: The treatment of cancer is worse than the disease itself.

The truth is cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy, can cause serious and unpleasant side effects. But many drugs and treatments have come up with recent advances that are much better than the past methods. This results in reduced symptoms of vomiting, nausea, tissue damage and hair loss. Also, palliative care is an important part of caring cancer, as it can help the patient feel comfortable at any stage of illness. Getting both the treatments at the same time may lessen the severity of the above symptoms and improve the quality of life.

Myth #3: All types of Carcinoma are contagious.

The fact is, there are some cancers that are caused due to bacteria and viruses spread from person to person. But it should be remembered that while the bacteria and viruses that cause cancer can spread, the cancers it causes cannot be spread from person to person.

Related: Bed Sores Myths | Conjunctivitis Myths

Conclusion:

If you ever suspect of having cancerous symptoms then you should immediately rush for a medical check-up by health care professionals. A regular self-examination and screening for different types of carcinoma, such as colon, breast, skin and cervix, can elevate your chances of learning about cancer early. Most likely the treatments at the initial stage are successful. Consult your specialist about screening schedules and other diagnosing methods. It is important to take preventive measures of carcinoma disease in your own hands. So don’t ignore your symptoms and consult a doctor soon before it is too late.

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Last updated on : 25-10-2018

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