Cefixime: Uses, Side Effects & Dosage

Cefixime is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which is prescribed by the doctor to treat a wide range of bacterial infections including gonorrhea (sexually transmitted disease). It belongs to the third-generation cephalosporin class of drugs. It inhibits the proliferation of these bacteria:

  • Haemophilus influenza
  • Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Proteus mirabilis
  • Escherichia coli

Cefixime is also used to treat other bacterial infections like bronchitis (infection of the air tubes to the lungs), and infections of the ear, throat, tonsils etc.

Nature Broad Spectrum Antibiotic
Composition Cephalosporin
Uses Urinary tract infections, ear infections and lung infections caused by bacteria.
Side Effects Diarrhea, abdominal pain, dark or clay coloured stools, swelling of face, lips, eyelids, tongue and hands and feet.
Precautions People with allergies, kidney or liver related disorders should avoid Cefixime.

Uses and Benefits of Cefixime:

Cefixime tablet is prescribed for curing a wide range of bacterial infections such as:

  • Otitis media – a group of inflammatory diseases in which infection develops in the air-filled spaces behind the eardrum (the middle ear).
  • Pneumonia – an infection that inflames air sacs in one or both lungs, which may fill with fluid.
  • Urinary tract infection – an infectious condition in any part of the urinary system, the kidneys, the bladder or the urethra.
  • Strep throat (pharyngitis and tonsillitis) – a bacterial infection that may cause a sore, scratchy throat.
  • Gonorrhea – a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that may cause infertility if it remains untreated.
  • Lyme disease – a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.
  • Infections occurring in and around the ear, bone, abdomen, and blood.

Cefixime tablet is not prescribed in case of a common cold and flu because these are viral infections.

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Side effects of Cefixime:

Cefixime tablet is a broad spectrum antibiotic medicine which can cause the following side effects:

  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea
  • Flatulence
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Hypotension
  • Heartburn

Some of the more serious side effects which the medicine produces are listed below.

  • watery or bloody stools, stomach cramps, or fever during treatment or for up to two or more months after stopping treatment
  • rash
  • swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes
  • itching
  • hives
  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • wheezing
  • a return of sore throat, fever, chills, or other signs of infection

In case any of the above-listed side effects are observed, it is advisable to consult the doctor immediately to prevent further complications. Prolonged use of this medicine may lead to the development of oral thrush and vaginal infections caused by yeast.

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Common Dosage of Cefixime:

Cefixime is available in the form of a tablet which should be taken as a whole without crushing, chewing or breaking it. It is advised to be taken with or without food at a gap of 12 hours or as prescribed by the doctor. Alternatively, the medicine is available in the form of a chewable tablet which should be taken as per the doctor’s prescription based on the health condition being treated.

  • Missed Dose : In case the dose of Cefixime tablet is missed, it is advised to take the missed dose as soon as it is remembered. In case the dose is remembered when it is almost time for the next dose, one should take the scheduled dose on time.
  • Overdose : In case the patient has taken an overdose of Cefixime tablet, it is important to consult the doctor immediately to prevent possible side effects and discomfort.

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Composition and Nature of Cefixime:

Cephalosporin is the key ingredient that is present in Cefixime.

The active ingredient present in Cefixime tablet is used to kill bacteria and work in a similar way to penicillin – by blocking the activity of the enzymes responsible for producing peptidoglycan – an important component of the bacterial cell wall.

How to Use?

Cefixime tablet is a prescription based broad spectrum antibiotic drug which is administered based on the health condition of the patient and the disease being treated. One is advised to inform the doctor about any on-going medicines, herbal or vitamin supplements etc. to allow for proper dose recommendation. Health conditions like allergy, pregnancy, breastfeeding, upcoming surgeries along with past medical history should also be brought to the doctor’s notice.

In case the patient is taking chewable tablets, it is suggested to chew the tablet completely before swallowing. In case the person has trouble chewing the tablet, it is advised to crush the tablet before swallowing.

How it Works?

Cefixime tablet works by binding with the penicillin-binding proteins, thereby preventing Peptidoglycan synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. The end result is the bacterial cell death which helps eliminate the bacterial infections for which the medicine is prescribed. At the same time, Cefixime tablet is helpful in curing the bacterial diseases when it is taken at evenly spaced intervals so that constant levels of antibiotics remain in the body.

When it is prescribed?

Cefixime tablet is an antibiotic medicine which is used for treating bacterial infections like bronchitis, gonorrhea, infections of the ear, throat, tonsils etc.

Additionally, the drug is also prescribed to treat other bacterial diseases like Bacterial Meningitis, Bacterial Septicemia, Gonococcal Infection, Urinary Tract Infection, pneumonia, Bone and joint infections, skin and structure infection.

Precautions and Warning - When to avoid Cefixime?

Patients are advised to consult the doctor before administering Cefixime tablet in case of the following health conditions:

  • Allergy: Cefixime tablet is not recommended in case the patient is allergic to its ingredients. It is advised to seek immediate medical attention in case any adverse reaction is observed.
  • Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea – in case severe diarrhea occurs after taking the medicine, the doctor must be informed.
  • Bleeding Disorders – the medicine should be used with caution in patients with excessive bleeding and the prothrombin time should be monitored regularly. The doctor should be consulted for any complications.
  • Kidney Related Disorders – patients with kidney-related disorders should particularly remain cautious of the medicine and discuss the effects with the doctor.
  • Liver-related disorders – patients with liver-related ailments are also advised to consult the doctor before administering Cefixime tablet.
  • Use in Paediatrics – Cefixime tablet should not be used in children below the age of six months since the safety and efficacy of the medicine is not clinically established in the particular age group.
  • Drug Resistance – in case no clear diagnosis has been made of any bacterial infection, it is important to consult the doctor before starting the treatment.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding – Pregnant and breastfeeding women should avoid taking Cefixime tablet as it can cause adverse effects for the fetus or the newborn baby.

Cefixime Interaction:

The effects and efficacy of Cefixime Tablet may change if a person is using other medicines or over-the-counter products at the same time. One is advised to ensure they share their medical history with the doctor so as to enable them to prevent any interactions with the drug.

Interaction with Medicines

The following drugs are known to interact with Cefixime tablet:

  • Amikacin
  • Amikacin Liposome
  • Ampicillin/probenecid
  • Anisindione
  • Bumetanide
  • Carbamazepine
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Cholecalciferol / Genistein / Zinc Chelazome
  • Cholecalciferol / Genistein / Zinc Glycinate
  • Cholera vaccine
  • Citric acid / magnesium oxide / sodium picosulfate
  • Colchicine / probenecid
  • Desogestrel / Ethinyl estradiol
  • Dicumarol
  • Dienogest / estradiol
  • Drospirenone / estradiol
  • Drospirenone / Ethinyl estradiol
  • Drospirenone / Ethinyl estradiol / levomefolate calcium
  • Entecavir
  • Pemetrexed
  • Plazomicin
  • Probenecid
  • Streptomycin
  • Tobramycin (Tobi, TOBI Podhaler, Bethkis, Kitabis Pak, Nebcin, Nebcin Pediatric)
  • Torsemide (Demadex, Demadex IV)
  • Typhoid vaccine, live (Vivotif Berna, Vivotif Berna Vaccine)
  • Warfarin

Interaction with Diseases

Patients with the following health conditions are advised to avoid using Cefixime tablet:

  • Colitis
  • Renal dysfunction
  • Nitroprusside tests
  • Liver disease
  • Seizure disorders

Interactions with Lab Tests

  • Blood Sugar Test : Cefixime tablet may interact with blood sugar test and influence the result in the way that the person may get erroneously diagnosed with diabetes.
  • Coombs Test : Report the use of medicine to the doctor in case one is undergoing the test. A false positive result may be obtained if this test is performed while taking the medicine. Consult the doctor about discontinuing any medicine before the test.
  • Urine Ketones Test : It is important to report the administration of Cefixime tablet before appearing for the urine ketones test as it may interfere with the results. A false positive result may be obtained in case the medicine is not stopped.

Substitutes of Cefixime:

Some of the medicines that have cefixime as the key salt are as follows:

  • Ceftas
  • Mahacef
  • Topcef
  • Skifi
  • Omnicef
  • Hifen
  • Abixim
  • Zifi
  • Cefluv
  • Omnatax
  • Si Fixim

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Medicines that Should Not Be Taken with Cefixime Tablet

The following drugs are known to interact with Cefixime tablet:

  • Estradiol
  • Estradiol / levonorgestrel
  • Estradiol / medroxyprogesterone
  • Estradiol / norethindrone
  • Estradiol / norgestimate
  • Estradiol / progesterone
  • Estradiol / testosterone
  • Ethacrynic acid
  • Ethinyl estradiol
  • Ethinyl estradiol / ethynodiol
  • Ethinyl estradiol / etonogestrel
  • Ethinyl estradiol / folic acid / levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel
  • Ethinyl estradiol/norelgestromin
  • Ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone
  • Ethinyl estradiol / norgestimate
  • Ethinyl estradiol / norgestrel
  • Ethinyl estradiol / segesterone
  • Furosemide (Lasix, Diaqua-2, Lo-Aqua)
  • Gentamicin (Garamycin, Cidomycin, Septopal)
  • Indium oxyquinoline in-111
  • Kanamycin
  • mestranol/norethindrone
  • mycophenolate mofetil
  • mycophenolic acid
  • Neomycin
  • Netilmicin
  • Nifedipine
  • Nimodipine

How to Store Cefixime?

The following storage conditions are advised to be followed to maintain the efficacy of the Cefixime tablet:

  • Cefixime tablet should be stored at room temperature away from direct sunlight and moisture.
  • The medicine should be kept away from the reach of children and pets.
  • The packaging of the medicine must be kept intact in order to maintain its effect when being administered.

FAQs

1) Can Cefixime Tablet be given to someone with similar bacterial infection without consulting the doctor?

Ans: No, it is not advisable to suggest Cefixime tablet to someone suffering from bacterial infection without proper consultation with the doctor. In case the person themselves have the same bacterial infection twice, they should not self-medicate without consulting the doctor each time before administering the medicine.

2) What is Cefixime Tablet used to treat?

Ans: Cefixime tablet is a broad spectrum antibiotic medicine which is used to cure bacterial infections like urinary tract infection, ear infection, tonsillitis/pharyngitis, bronchitis, gonococcal infection. The medicine inhibits the growth of bacteria and hence treats bacterial infections.

3) What are the side effects of Cefixime Tablet?

Ans: Cefixime tablet leads to some commonly observed side effects like diarrhea, stomach pain, gas, nausea, heartburn, rashes, itching, hives, wheezing, swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes, sore throat, fever, chills, other signs of infection.

4) Can Cefixime Tablet result in constipation?

Ans: A common side effect of this medicine is diarrhea, but it is not known to cause constipation. If the patient suffers from hard stool post administration of this medicine, talk to the doctor immediately.

5) What are some of the symptoms of Cefixime overdosing?

Ans: Some of the signs of overdosing of cefixime tablet are fainting and difficulty in breathing. If the patient suffers from any of these effects after taking this medicine, it is advised to rush to the nearest clinic and consult a doctor.

6) Are penicillin and cefixime similar?

Ans: Penicillin and Cefixime tablets are different from each other as they belong to different classes of medicine. However, their mechanism of action is similar.

7) Can I stop taking Cefixime tablet when my symptoms are relieved?

Ans: No, one should not stop taking Cefixime tablet even when the symptoms are relieved. It is advised to complete the tablet course as prescribed by the doctor as stopping the treatment mid-way may make the infection reoccur.

8) Can Cefixime tablet be used to treat typhoid?

Ans: Yes, the Indian Association of Paediatrics recommends the use of Cefixime tablet in children for uncomplicated typhoid fever.

9) What is the onset of action of Cefixime Tablet?

Ans: Cefixime tablet starts working soon after being administered. However, the tablet may take some days before all the harmful bacteria are killed and the disease is completely cured.

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Last updated on : 04-04-2019

Disclaimer : Docprime doesn’t endorse or take any guarantee of the accuracy or completeness of information provided under this article and these are the views strictly of the writer. Docprime shall not be held responsible for any aspect of healthcare services administered with the information provided on this article.

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