The surgical procedure of replacing a nonfunctional kidney with a healthy kidney of a deceased or a live donor is known as kidney transplant surgery. Located right below the ribcage, the major function of the kidneys is filtering and removing the excess minerals, waste and fluid from the blood, in the form of urine. It also helps in maintaining the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. When the filtering ability of the kidneys reduce, harmful waste and fluid get accumulated in the body. This condition gradually increases the blood pressure, and results in kidney failure. Kidney failure is also known as end stage renal disease or end stage kidney disease. End stage renal disease is a severe condition is which the kidneys lose about 90 % of the ability to function in a normal manner. Some of the common causes of an end stage renal disease are diabetes, uncontrolled high blood pressure, chronic glomerulonephritis and polycystic kidney disease. Therefore, the people with end stage renal disease need to undergo kidney transplant, or dialysis, i.e. removal of waste from the bloodstream through a machine. Undergoing a kidney transplant surgery overcomes the disadvantage of depending on the dialysis machine on a long term. It also allows one to lead a more active lifestyle. However, this surgery is not suitable for people with severe infections, and people who are extremely overweight.