Lesion

The part of the skin that has an abnormal growth compared with the other parts of the skin around it is called a lesion. Lesions are of 2 types, primary and secondary. Primary lesions are the abnormal skin conditions that can be either occurring by birth or acquired over a lifetime. When the primary skin lesions are irritated or manipulated, it results in the secondary lesions.  For instance, a mole when scratched hard can turn into a crust resulting in a secondary lesion.

Various conditions can lead to lesions, and the detailed list is given below:

Acne:

-  Acne that is located on the face, chest and upper back

-  Skin’s breakouts like whiteheads and breakouts, pimples

-  Acne can leave the skin marked and scarred when not treated

Cold sore:

-  These are blisters that are reddish in colour and filled with pus. They appear near the mouth and nose

-  Before the sore is visible the area where it is formed burns and itches

-  There can be mild fever, flu-like symptoms, and body aches to accompany these blisters.

Herpes simplex:

-  The genital lesions are caused by the viruses HSV1 and HSV 2. These can also lead to oral lesions

-  They can occur in single or in groups. The crust is covered with yellow fluid inside.

-  Symptoms of flu, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, fever and headache accompany the condition

-  They can be formed due to mensuration, illness, exposure to sun, and stress

Actinic keratosis:

-  They are less than 2 cm or can be large enough to pencil eraser

-  The skin patch is crusty and pink. It can also become thick and scaly

-  They can appear on any part of the body that is exposed to the sun. For instance, sun, scalp, arms and hands

-  They can also become tan, grey and brown

Allergic eczema:

-  This resembles a burn

-  The skin becomes scaly, itchy, and raw. Often these are found on hands and forearms

-  They weep and ooze and the outer area is crusty

Impetigo:

-  This condition is common in babies and kids

-  The rashes are often found near mouth and chin

-  The rashes are filled with blisters and can be popped easily. The outer crust is in the colour of honey

Contact dermatitis:

-  After contacting the allergen, the condition can prevail in a  few hours

-  The rashes are formed wherever the irritant has come in contact with the skin

-  Raw, scaly and thick skin is formed

-  The blisters are filled with pus and can become crusty

Psoriasis:

-  The skin patches are scaly and silvery

-  The skin becomes too itchy

-  Lower back, elbows and knees are full of patches

Chickenpox:

-  The various parts of the body are covered with red and fluid-filled blisters

-  Fever, body aches, loss of appetite and sore throat are the symptoms that  accompany the disease

-  This is a contagious disease

Shingles:

-  With no blisters too, the rashes can burn, itch and cause pain. The rashes are full of clusters and filled with pus. They weep fluid

-  The rashes are in the pattern of linear stripes, and often found in the torso, and face

Sebaceous cyst:

-  These are found on the face, neck and torso

-  The cysts that cause pain and pressure are large, and they grow very slowly

-  These are not malignant and do not cause cancer

MRSA (staph) infection:

-  This is a condition that needs emergency treatment. This is caused by staph bacteria, and these cannot be treated with antibiotics.

-  When the bacteria enters into the scrape or cut, the infection is caused

-  They are similar to the spider bite and are like red pimples. They are raised and cause pain

-  Powerful antibiotics are required to treat this and can lead to blood infection

Cellulitis:

-  This is another condition that should be treated as a medical emergency. They ooze faster and spread the infection. It leads to swollen skin that changes to colour red and becomes painful

-  They are hot to touch and very tender

-  This serious condition leads to fever and chills. Red streaking rash is formed on the skin

Scabies:

-  These are enormously itchy and are full of tiny blisters

-  This scaly scabies can be treated over a period of 4 to 6 weeks

-  They are like flesh-toned lines that are raised

Bullae:

-  Filled with clear liquid, these blisters are more than 1 cm in size. The infection can be considered serious when the clear liquid turns milky

-  Dermatitis, friction and range of other skin disorders can cause this condition

Blister:

-  Again, clear watery looking fluid filled condition is a blister. But they are smaller than 1 cm.

-  These can occur anywhere in the body, and occur in groups or alone

Nodule:

-  These are filled with fluid and tissues. They are from medium growth.

-  These are the smooth elevation of the skin, and broader than pimples.

-  When pressed they can cause discomfort. The nodules cannot be identified for long in the body, as they are deep-rooted.

Rash:

-  Caused due to various reasons like insect bites, autoimmune diseases, bacterial infection, skin infection, or allergic reactions, these rashes should be considered as  a medical emergency

-  They can change in colour or size. While simple rashes can be tolerated and disappear in a few hours and can be managed at home, the severe rashes need medical attention. They can cause pain, dizziness, nausea and can cause difficulty in breathing

Hives:

-  They are caused because of exposure to the allergens

-  These itchy raised welts can be painful, and even touch can lead to the pain

-  They are small and round in shape, and can also be randomly shaped at times

Keloids:

-  Human papillomavirus of various types can cause keloids. They are found on the skin and mucous membranes. They can occur in single or in groups.

-  They are contagious and can be passed on to others

Causes:

Infection on the skin is the major cause for the condition. Wart is a fine example. When wart affected person comes in contact with others, the infection is passed on. The same is the case with cold sores and genital herpes. Skin lesions can be spread all over the body in the case of chicken pox and shingles.

A few types of lesions can be genetic. One of the examples is freckles and birthmarks.

Allergic reactions can lead to lesions like eczema and psoriasis.

Diabetes and inadequate blood flow in the body can also lead to skin lesions in a few cases

In a few cases, it can be seen that the members having warts or other types of lesions like freckles are around in the extended family too.  Hereditary is a factor that causes such types of lesions.

Autoimmune diseases can also trigger lesions in a few people. A few people can develop rashes that disappear in a few hours after eating certain types of foods

How is it diagnosed?

A complete physical examination is required to diagnose skin lesions. All symptoms are taken into account to find the root cause of the lesion.

Skin samples are taken for biopsy in a few cases. This is often done to check if the condition is cancerous. Moles and warts that keep changing in size and colour are checked for cancerous growth.

Treatment:

The core cause of the condition has to be analyzed to treat the lesion. The medical history and the type of lesion play a major role in identifying how to treat the condition.

Medication:

The doctors never go for surgery on the very first visit. The affected area is treated, and inflammation is brought down. When the condition can be controlled with the medications, the doctor might not refer to a surgeon. Topical creams are prescribed for itching, and to alleviate pain.

Oral medications are required if skin lesions are the effects of chicken pox or shingles. Eczema, psoriasis and other such types of lesions need advanced treatment and the duration of medication can be longer, even a year. This is however based on the specific requirements of the individual and the scenario.

Surgery:

Moles at times might not find the oral medications and topical creams potent enough to control them. This is where surgical intervention is required. This is most often done when the moles are suspicious. This means they can grow in size, and the colour can be changed. This is a symptom of skin cancer.

Hemangioma is a condition that is a result of the blood vessels that are not formed right. These are birthmarks, and they can be removed with ease. Laser surgery is how these are removed.

Apart from medical treatment, these lesions can also be treated by home care. Oatmeal baths and lotions often can lead to bringing down the burning and itching sensation caused by the lesions.

Prevention:

Avoiding contact with infected people can control skin lesions in many cases. The best examples are shingles and chicken pox.

However, not much can be done in case of freckles and warts.

Brain lesions: When the tissue of the brain is damaged by a disease or injury, then the condition is called a brain lesion. This is a very complicated condition to understand. There are various types of brain lesions. They can be of all sizes, small to very huge. They can be innocuous and can be life-threatening.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of the brain lesions can vary based on the location, size, and severity. The symptoms are:

-  Neck pain

-  Vision changes, or pain in the eye

-  Memory loss

-  Confusion

-  Seizures

-  Headaches

-  Fever

-  Difficulty in moving

-  Personality, behavioural and mood changes

Causes:

Brain lesions can be caused due to various reasons.

- Injury: Any trauma caused to the brain or head can lead to damaged tissue in the brain

- Immune system: A weak immune system can lead to this condition

- Chemicals: Exposure to a few chemicals can lead to changes in the brain chemicals and lead to a brain lesion

-  A brain aneurysm or bulge in the brain can lead to a brain lesion

-  Cancerous and non-cancerous brain tumours too can cause the brain lesion

-  Brain inflammation can lead to a brain lesion

-  Epilepsy

-  Multiple sclerosis

-  stroke

How are they diagnosed?

The symptoms decide the diagnostic methods for the brain lesions. CT scan and MRI imaging help in finding the most accurate location of the brain lesion. The blood tests and various other lab tests will also be recommended by the doctor. The signs of infections bring in need for the advanced test.

Treatment:

Relieving symptoms is often why the treatments are opted for. There are treatment options that can also offer a cure, and improve the quality of life. The doctors, however, start with the watchful waiting period. This means, they wait and see if the lesions are growing or seeing any difference over a certain period of time.

The hard to reach lesions could not remove with surgery in earlier days. But now, these days, the advanced techniques are used to make it easy for the surgical removal of the lesions even in the toughest location.

When the lesions are not cancerous, they can be treated with antibiotics and a range of other medications

For the lesions that are cancerous, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used to remove them.

If the lesions are because of the immune system problems, the medications are prescribed to suppress the immune system.

Prevention:

Brain lesions cannot be predicted or prevented. Environmental toxins and avoiding exposure to chemicals can keep off brain lesions that are resulting due to these factors. A few preventive measures are given as guidelines by the healthcare department.

-  Quit smoking. Smoking can play a major role in causing blood pressure and aggravating aneurysm. This is a crucial cause for brain lesions.

-  Controlling high blood pressure blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol is a wise way to stay off from brain lesions and various other health complications.

-  Always keep the head protected with the right gear when involved in activities like skiing, skateboarding, and while riding a bike.

Any lesion should be watched for the growth in size and colours if on the skin, and the symptoms should watch in case of brain lesion. This can help in identifying them earlier and getting treated faster.

Last updated on : 14-09-2018

Disclaimer : Docprime doesn’t endorse or take any guarantee of the accuracy or completeness of information provided under this article and these are the views strictly of the writer. Docprime shall not be held responsible for any aspect of healthcare services administered with the information provided on this article.

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